FreeRTOS中port源文件分析

嵌入式,FreeRTOS,port

Posted by elmagnifico on March 24, 2017

port

port文件一般都是跟平台相关的,所以不同平台下的这个文件也略有不同。

portmacro.h

portmacro.h 主要包括两部分内容,第一部分定义了一系列内核代码中用到的数据类型。FreeRTOS 与 uC/OS-II 一样,并不直接使用char、int 等这些原生类型,而是将其重新定义为一系列以port开头的新类型。在uC/OS-II的移植代码中,通常采用 typedef 来定义新的类型,而FreeRTOS的作者似乎更喜欢用宏定义。

portable.h

portable.h文件是port.c的对应的头文件,相关定义也都在这里面。

FreeRTOS有两种方法触发任务切换

  • 执行系统调用,比如普通任务可以使用taskYIELD()强制任务切换,中断服务程序中使用portYIELD_FROM_ISR()强制任务切换

  • 系统节拍时钟中断

这两种方法的实质是一样的,都会使能一个PendSV中断,在PendSV中断服务程序中,找到最高优先级的就绪任务,然后让这个任务获得CPU运行权,从而完成任务切换。

环境

编译环境:keil

固件库:Keil.STM32F7xx_DFP.2.9.0

目标开发板:STM32F767IG

目标系统:FreeRTOS 9.0

栈初始化

StackType_t *pxPortInitialiseStack( StackType_t *pxTopOfStack, TaskFunction_t pxCode, void *pvParameters )
{
	/* Simulate the stack frame as it would be created by a context switch
	interrupt. */

	/* Offset added to account for the way the MCU uses the stack on entry/exit
	of interrupts, and to ensure alignment. */
	pxTopOfStack--;

	*pxTopOfStack = portINITIAL_XPSR;	/* xPSR */
	pxTopOfStack--;
	*pxTopOfStack = ( ( StackType_t ) pxCode ) & portSTART_ADDRESS_MASK;	/* PC */
	pxTopOfStack--;
	*pxTopOfStack = ( StackType_t ) prvTaskExitError;	/* LR */

	/* Save code space by skipping register initialisation. */
	pxTopOfStack -= 5;	/* R12, R3, R2 and R1. */
	*pxTopOfStack = ( StackType_t ) pvParameters;	/* R0 */

	/* A save method is being used that requires each task to maintain its
	own exec return value. */
	pxTopOfStack--;
	*pxTopOfStack = portINITIAL_EXEC_RETURN;

	pxTopOfStack -= 8;	/* R11, R10, R9, R8, R7, R6, R5 and R4. */

	return pxTopOfStack;
}

进行堆栈的初始化,使堆栈处于预知的确定状态。其模拟了一个由中断引起的上下文切换导致的堆栈操作序列。

首先保存了XPSR 程序状态寄存器的值,用于中断恢复现场使用。

然后保存了任务的入口地址,任务错误出口?

接着是预留给R12 3 2 1的位置,这里跳过。

有保存了程序退出的时候的返回值

然后是预留给R11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 的值。

任务提前退出错误函数

static void prvTaskExitError( void )
{
	/* A function that implements a task must not exit or attempt to return to
	its caller as there is nothing to return to.  If a task wants to exit it
	should instead call vTaskDelete( NULL ).

	Artificially force an assert() to be triggered if configASSERT() is
	defined, then stop here so application writers can catch the error. */
	configASSERT( uxCriticalNesting == ~0UL );
	portDISABLE_INTERRUPTS();
	for( ;; );
}

因为设定里任务函数不能自主退出,要么一直执行,要么按照流程 vTaskDelete() 来删除任务,而没有任务自己退出的权利。

那么如果任务自己退出了,自然就是报错了,这里就是错误处理函数。

第一个中断函数

__asm void vPortSVCHandler( void )
{
	PRESERVE8

	/* Get the location of the current TCB. */
	ldr	r3, =pxCurrentTCB
	ldr r1, [r3]
	ldr r0, [r1]
	/* Pop the core registers. */
	ldmia r0!, {r4-r11, r14}
	msr psp, r0
	isb
	mov r0, #0
	msr	basepri, r0
	bx r14
}

这个函数就是启动时会调用的第一个中断函数。

任务的堆栈指针存入PSP寄存器,然后写入0到basepri寄存器,屏蔽所有中断

开始第一个任务函数

__asm void prvStartFirstTask( void )
{
	PRESERVE8

	/* Use the NVIC offset register to locate the stack. */
	ldr r0, =0xE000ED08
	ldr r0, [r0]
	ldr r0, [r0]
	/* Set the msp back to the start of the stack. */
	msr msp, r0
	/* Globally enable interrupts. */
	cpsie i
	cpsie f
	dsb
	isb
	/* Call SVC to start the first task. */
	svc 0
	nop
	nop
}

就是通过这个函数开启了全局中断,然后调用了上面第一个中断函数的

使能VFP

__asm void prvEnableVFP( void )
{
	PRESERVE8

	/* The FPU enable bits are in the CPACR. */
	ldr.w r0, =0xE000ED88
	ldr	r1, [r0]

	/* Enable CP10 and CP11 coprocessors, then save back. */
	orr	r1, r1, #( 0xf << 20 )
	str r1, [r0]
	bx	r14
	nop
}

开启硬件的FPU

开启任务调度

BaseType_t xPortStartScheduler( void )
{
	#if( configASSERT_DEFINED == 1 )
	{
		volatile uint32_t ulOriginalPriority;
		volatile uint8_t * const pucFirstUserPriorityRegister = ( uint8_t * ) ( portNVIC_IP_REGISTERS_OFFSET_16 + portFIRST_USER_INTERRUPT_NUMBER );
		volatile uint8_t ucMaxPriorityValue;

		/* Determine the maximum priority from which ISR safe FreeRTOS API
		functions can be called.  ISR safe functions are those that end in
		"FromISR".  FreeRTOS maintains separate thread and ISR API functions to
		ensure interrupt entry is as fast and simple as possible.

		Save the interrupt priority value that is about to be clobbered. */
		ulOriginalPriority = *pucFirstUserPriorityRegister;

		/* Determine the number of priority bits available.  First write to all
		possible bits. */
		*pucFirstUserPriorityRegister = portMAX_8_BIT_VALUE;

		/* Read the value back to see how many bits stuck. */
		ucMaxPriorityValue = *pucFirstUserPriorityRegister;

		/* The kernel interrupt priority should be set to the lowest
		priority. */
		configASSERT( ucMaxPriorityValue == ( configKERNEL_INTERRUPT_PRIORITY & ucMaxPriorityValue ) );

		/* Use the same mask on the maximum system call priority. */
		ucMaxSysCallPriority = configMAX_SYSCALL_INTERRUPT_PRIORITY & ucMaxPriorityValue;

		/* Calculate the maximum acceptable priority group value for the number
		of bits read back. */
		ulMaxPRIGROUPValue = portMAX_PRIGROUP_BITS;
		while( ( ucMaxPriorityValue & portTOP_BIT_OF_BYTE ) == portTOP_BIT_OF_BYTE )
		{
			ulMaxPRIGROUPValue--;
			ucMaxPriorityValue <<= ( uint8_t ) 0x01;
		}

		/* Shift the priority group value back to its position within the AIRCR
		register. */
		ulMaxPRIGROUPValue <<= portPRIGROUP_SHIFT;
		ulMaxPRIGROUPValue &= portPRIORITY_GROUP_MASK;

		/* Restore the clobbered interrupt priority register to its original
		value. */
		*pucFirstUserPriorityRegister = ulOriginalPriority;
	}
	#endif /* conifgASSERT_DEFINED */

	/* Make PendSV and SysTick the lowest priority interrupts. */
	portNVIC_SYSPRI2_REG |= portNVIC_PENDSV_PRI;
	portNVIC_SYSPRI2_REG |= portNVIC_SYSTICK_PRI;

	/* Start the timer that generates the tick ISR.  Interrupts are disabled
	here already. */
	vPortSetupTimerInterrupt();

	/* Initialise the critical nesting count ready for the first task. */
	uxCriticalNesting = 0;

	/* Ensure the VFP is enabled - it should be anyway. */
	prvEnableVFP();

	/* Lazy save always. */
	*( portFPCCR ) |= portASPEN_AND_LSPEN_BITS;

	/* Start the first task. */
	prvStartFirstTask();

	/* Should not get here! */
	return 0;
}

首先第一步是通过写入全部中断位,然后计算可以用的最大中断位是几位。

然后设置调度系统和心跳的中断优先级是最低。

开启心跳Timer,产生中断。(此时中断是关闭的)

开启VFP,开始第一个任务

结束调度函数

void vPortEndScheduler( void )
{
	/* Not implemented in ports where there is nothing to return to.
	Artificially force an assert. */
	configASSERT( uxCriticalNesting == 1000UL );
}

系统应该不会结束调度函数,所以这里基本是没实现的。

进入关键代码区域

void vPortEnterCritical( void )
{
	portDISABLE_INTERRUPTS();
	uxCriticalNesting++;

	/* This is not the interrupt safe version of the enter critical function so
	assert() if it is being called from an interrupt context.  Only API
	functions that end in "FromISR" can be used in an interrupt.  Only assert if
	the critical nesting count is 1 to protect against recursive calls if the
	assert function also uses a critical section. */
	if( uxCriticalNesting == 1 )
	{
		configASSERT( ( portNVIC_INT_CTRL_REG & portVECTACTIVE_MASK ) == 0 );
	}
}

进入关键代码区域

关闭中断

uxCriticalNesting 是信号量,防止中断重入的

这个函数不能在中断函数中调用。

退出关键代码区域

void vPortExitCritical( void )
{
	configASSERT( uxCriticalNesting );
	uxCriticalNesting--;
	if( uxCriticalNesting == 0 )
	{
		portENABLE_INTERRUPTS();
	}
}

uxCriticalNesting 是信号量,防止中断重入的

开启中断

任务切换中断处理函数

__asm void xPortPendSVHandler( void )
{
	extern uxCriticalNesting;
	extern pxCurrentTCB;
	extern vTaskSwitchContext;

	PRESERVE8

	mrs r0, psp
	isb
	/* Get the location of the current TCB. */
	ldr	r3, =pxCurrentTCB
	ldr	r2, [r3]

	/* Is the task using the FPU context?  If so, push high vfp registers. */
	tst r14, #0x10
	it eq
	vstmdbeq r0!, {s16-s31}

	/* Save the core registers. */
	stmdb r0!, {r4-r11, r14}

	/* Save the new top of stack into the first member of the TCB. */
	str r0, [r2]

	stmdb sp!, {r3}
	mov r0, #configMAX_SYSCALL_INTERRUPT_PRIORITY
	cpsid i
	msr basepri, r0
	dsb
	isb
	cpsie i
	bl vTaskSwitchContext
	mov r0, #0
	msr basepri, r0
	ldmia sp!, {r3}

	/* The first item in pxCurrentTCB is the task top of stack. */
	ldr r1, [r3]
	ldr r0, [r1]

	/* Pop the core registers. */
	ldmia r0!, {r4-r11, r14}

	/* Is the task using the FPU context?  If so, pop the high vfp registers
	too. */
	tst r14, #0x10
	it eq
	vldmiaeq r0!, {s16-s31}

	msr psp, r0
	isb
	#ifdef WORKAROUND_PMU_CM001 /* XMC4000 specific errata */
		#if WORKAROUND_PMU_CM001 == 1
			push { r14 }
			pop { pc }
			nop
		#endif
	#endif

	bx r14
}

任务堆栈指针PSP的值保存到寄存器R0中,因为接下来会将寄存器R4~R11也保存到任务堆栈中

获取当前激活的任务TCP指针

将寄存器R4~R11保存到当前激活的程序任务堆栈中,并且同步更新寄存器R0的值

寄存器R2中保存当前激活的任务TCB指针

将R3和R14临时压入堆栈,因为即将调用函数vTaskSwitchContext

进入临界区,中断优先级大于等于configMAX_SYSCALL_INTERRUPT_PRIORITY的中断都会被屏蔽。

调用函数,选择下一个要执行的任务,也就是寻找处于就绪态的最高优先级任务

退出临界区,通过向寄存器BASEPRI写入数值0来实现

寄存器R3和R14从堆栈中恢复

变量pxCurrentTCB指向的任务TCB指针

寄存器R4~R11出栈,并同时更新R0的值

最新的任务堆栈栈顶赋值给线程堆栈指针PSP

如果用了FPU,把他的寄存器也出栈

异常中断服务程序退出

心跳定时器中断

void xPortSysTickHandler( void )
{
	/* The SysTick runs at the lowest interrupt priority, so when this interrupt
	executes all interrupts must be unmasked.  There is therefore no need to
	save and then restore the interrupt mask value as its value is already
	known - therefore the slightly faster vPortRaiseBASEPRI() function is used
	in place of portSET_INTERRUPT_MASK_FROM_ISR(). */
	vPortRaiseBASEPRI();
	{
		/* Increment the RTOS tick. */
		if( xTaskIncrementTick() != pdFALSE )
		{
			/* A context switch is required.  Context switching is performed in
			the PendSV interrupt.  Pend the PendSV interrupt. */
			portNVIC_INT_CTRL_REG = portNVIC_PENDSVSET_BIT;
		}
	}
	vPortClearBASEPRIFromISR();
}

系统心跳定时器运行在最低级中断。

提升中断级别

心跳计数器自增,如果需要上下文切换,那么就使能PendSV中断

降低中断级别。

使能低功耗函数

#if configUSE_TICKLESS_IDLE == 1

	__weak void vPortSuppressTicksAndSleep( TickType_t xExpectedIdleTime )
	{
	uint32_t ulReloadValue, ulCompleteTickPeriods, ulCompletedSysTickDecrements, ulSysTickCTRL;
	TickType_t xModifiableIdleTime;

		/* Make sure the SysTick reload value does not overflow the counter. */
		if( xExpectedIdleTime > xMaximumPossibleSuppressedTicks )
		{
			xExpectedIdleTime = xMaximumPossibleSuppressedTicks;
		}

		/* Stop the SysTick momentarily.  The time the SysTick is stopped for
		is accounted for as best it can be, but using the tickless mode will
		inevitably result in some tiny drift of the time maintained by the
		kernel with respect to calendar time. */
		portNVIC_SYSTICK_CTRL_REG &= ~portNVIC_SYSTICK_ENABLE_BIT;

		/* Calculate the reload value required to wait xExpectedIdleTime
		tick periods.  -1 is used because this code will execute part way
		through one of the tick periods. */
		ulReloadValue = portNVIC_SYSTICK_CURRENT_VALUE_REG + ( ulTimerCountsForOneTick * ( xExpectedIdleTime - 1UL ) );
		if( ulReloadValue > ulStoppedTimerCompensation )
		{
			ulReloadValue -= ulStoppedTimerCompensation;
		}

		/* Enter a critical section but don't use the taskENTER_CRITICAL()
		method as that will mask interrupts that should exit sleep mode. */
		__disable_irq();
		__dsb( portSY_FULL_READ_WRITE );
		__isb( portSY_FULL_READ_WRITE );

		/* If a context switch is pending or a task is waiting for the scheduler
		to be unsuspended then abandon the low power entry. */
		if( eTaskConfirmSleepModeStatus() == eAbortSleep )
		{
			/* Restart from whatever is left in the count register to complete
			this tick period. */
			portNVIC_SYSTICK_LOAD_REG = portNVIC_SYSTICK_CURRENT_VALUE_REG;

			/* Restart SysTick. */
			portNVIC_SYSTICK_CTRL_REG |= portNVIC_SYSTICK_ENABLE_BIT;

			/* Reset the reload register to the value required for normal tick
			periods. */
			portNVIC_SYSTICK_LOAD_REG = ulTimerCountsForOneTick - 1UL;

			/* Re-enable interrupts - see comments above __disable_irq() call
			above. */
			__enable_irq();
		}
		else
		{
			/* Set the new reload value. */
			portNVIC_SYSTICK_LOAD_REG = ulReloadValue;

			/* Clear the SysTick count flag and set the count value back to
			zero. */
			portNVIC_SYSTICK_CURRENT_VALUE_REG = 0UL;

			/* Restart SysTick. */
			portNVIC_SYSTICK_CTRL_REG |= portNVIC_SYSTICK_ENABLE_BIT;

			/* Sleep until something happens.  configPRE_SLEEP_PROCESSING() can
			set its parameter to 0 to indicate that its implementation contains
			its own wait for interrupt or wait for event instruction, and so wfi
			should not be executed again.  However, the original expected idle
			time variable must remain unmodified, so a copy is taken. */
			xModifiableIdleTime = xExpectedIdleTime;
			configPRE_SLEEP_PROCESSING( xModifiableIdleTime );
			if( xModifiableIdleTime > 0 )
			{
				__dsb( portSY_FULL_READ_WRITE );
				__wfi();
				__isb( portSY_FULL_READ_WRITE );
			}
			configPOST_SLEEP_PROCESSING( xExpectedIdleTime );

			/* Stop SysTick.  Again, the time the SysTick is stopped for is
			accounted for as best it can be, but using the tickless mode will
			inevitably result in some tiny drift of the time maintained by the
			kernel with respect to calendar time. */
			ulSysTickCTRL = portNVIC_SYSTICK_CTRL_REG;
			portNVIC_SYSTICK_CTRL_REG = ( ulSysTickCTRL & ~portNVIC_SYSTICK_ENABLE_BIT );

			/* Re-enable interrupts - see comments above __disable_irq() call
			above. */
			__enable_irq();

			if( ( ulSysTickCTRL & portNVIC_SYSTICK_COUNT_FLAG_BIT ) != 0 )
			{
				uint32_t ulCalculatedLoadValue;

				/* The tick interrupt has already executed, and the SysTick
				count reloaded with ulReloadValue.  Reset the
				portNVIC_SYSTICK_LOAD_REG with whatever remains of this tick
				period. */
				ulCalculatedLoadValue = ( ulTimerCountsForOneTick - 1UL ) - ( ulReloadValue - portNVIC_SYSTICK_CURRENT_VALUE_REG );

				/* Don't allow a tiny value, or values that have somehow
				underflowed because the post sleep hook did something
				that took too long. */
				if( ( ulCalculatedLoadValue < ulStoppedTimerCompensation ) || ( ulCalculatedLoadValue > ulTimerCountsForOneTick ) )
				{
					ulCalculatedLoadValue = ( ulTimerCountsForOneTick - 1UL );
				}

				portNVIC_SYSTICK_LOAD_REG = ulCalculatedLoadValue;

				/* The tick interrupt handler will already have pended the tick
				processing in the kernel.  As the pending tick will be
				processed as soon as this function exits, the tick value
				maintained by the tick is stepped forward by one less than the
				time spent waiting. */
				ulCompleteTickPeriods = xExpectedIdleTime - 1UL;
			}
			else
			{
				/* Something other than the tick interrupt ended the sleep.
				Work out how long the sleep lasted rounded to complete tick
				periods (not the ulReload value which accounted for part
				ticks). */
				ulCompletedSysTickDecrements = ( xExpectedIdleTime * ulTimerCountsForOneTick ) - portNVIC_SYSTICK_CURRENT_VALUE_REG;

				/* How many complete tick periods passed while the processor
				was waiting? */
				ulCompleteTickPeriods = ulCompletedSysTickDecrements / ulTimerCountsForOneTick;

				/* The reload value is set to whatever fraction of a single tick
				period remains. */
				portNVIC_SYSTICK_LOAD_REG = ( ( ulCompleteTickPeriods + 1UL ) * ulTimerCountsForOneTick ) - ulCompletedSysTickDecrements;
			}

			/* Restart SysTick so it runs from portNVIC_SYSTICK_LOAD_REG
			again, then set portNVIC_SYSTICK_LOAD_REG back to its standard
			value.  The critical section is used to ensure the tick interrupt
			can only execute once in the case that the reload register is near
			zero. */
			portNVIC_SYSTICK_CURRENT_VALUE_REG = 0UL;
			portENTER_CRITICAL();
			{
				portNVIC_SYSTICK_CTRL_REG |= portNVIC_SYSTICK_ENABLE_BIT;
				vTaskStepTick( ulCompleteTickPeriods );
				portNVIC_SYSTICK_LOAD_REG = ulTimerCountsForOneTick - 1UL;
			}
			portEXIT_CRITICAL();
		}
	}

#endif /* #if configUSE_TICKLESS_IDLE */

这个大概对应硬件的待机/睡眠/停止 模式下的时钟配置 调度配置等。

系统心跳TIMER配置

#if configOVERRIDE_DEFAULT_TICK_CONFIGURATION == 0

	void vPortSetupTimerInterrupt( void )
	{
		/* Calculate the constants required to configure the tick interrupt. */
		#if configUSE_TICKLESS_IDLE == 1
		{
			ulTimerCountsForOneTick = ( configSYSTICK_CLOCK_HZ / configTICK_RATE_HZ );
			xMaximumPossibleSuppressedTicks = portMAX_24_BIT_NUMBER / ulTimerCountsForOneTick;
			ulStoppedTimerCompensation = portMISSED_COUNTS_FACTOR / ( configCPU_CLOCK_HZ / configSYSTICK_CLOCK_HZ );
		}
		#endif /* configUSE_TICKLESS_IDLE */

		/* Configure SysTick to interrupt at the requested rate. */
		portNVIC_SYSTICK_LOAD_REG = ( configSYSTICK_CLOCK_HZ / configTICK_RATE_HZ ) - 1UL;
		portNVIC_SYSTICK_CTRL_REG = ( portNVIC_SYSTICK_CLK_BIT | portNVIC_SYSTICK_INT_BIT | portNVIC_SYSTICK_ENABLE_BIT );
	}

#endif /* configOVERRIDE_DEFAULT_TICK_CONFIGURATION */

用来配置系统心跳的TIMER函数

返回IPSR函数

__asm uint32_t vPortGetIPSR( void )
{
	PRESERVE8

	mrs r0, ipsr
	bx r14
}

获取当前中断级别

有效中断优先级

#if( configASSERT_DEFINED == 1 )

	void vPortValidateInterruptPriority( void )
	{
	uint32_t ulCurrentInterrupt;
	uint8_t ucCurrentPriority;

		/* Obtain the number of the currently executing interrupt. */
		ulCurrentInterrupt = vPortGetIPSR();

		/* Is the interrupt number a user defined interrupt? */
		if( ulCurrentInterrupt >= portFIRST_USER_INTERRUPT_NUMBER )
		{
			/* Look up the interrupt's priority. */
			ucCurrentPriority = pcInterruptPriorityRegisters[ ulCurrentInterrupt ];

			/* The following assertion will fail if a service routine (ISR) for
			an interrupt that has been assigned a priority above
			configMAX_SYSCALL_INTERRUPT_PRIORITY calls an ISR safe FreeRTOS API
			function.  ISR safe FreeRTOS API functions must *only* be called
			from interrupts that have been assigned a priority at or below
			configMAX_SYSCALL_INTERRUPT_PRIORITY.

			Numerically low interrupt priority numbers represent logically high
			interrupt priorities, therefore the priority of the interrupt must
			be set to a value equal to or numerically *higher* than
			configMAX_SYSCALL_INTERRUPT_PRIORITY.

			Interrupts that	use the FreeRTOS API must not be left at their
			default priority of	zero as that is the highest possible priority,
			which is guaranteed to be above configMAX_SYSCALL_INTERRUPT_PRIORITY,
			and	therefore also guaranteed to be invalid.

			FreeRTOS maintains separate thread and ISR API functions to ensure
			interrupt entry is as fast and simple as possible.

			The following links provide detailed information:
			http://www.freertos.org/RTOS-Cortex-M3-M4.html
			http://www.freertos.org/FAQHelp.html */
			configASSERT( ucCurrentPriority >= ucMaxSysCallPriority );
		}

		/* Priority grouping:  The interrupt controller (NVIC) allows the bits
		that define each interrupt's priority to be split between bits that
		define the interrupt's pre-emption priority bits and bits that define
		the interrupt's sub-priority.  For simplicity all bits must be defined
		to be pre-emption priority bits.  The following assertion will fail if
		this is not the case (if some bits represent a sub-priority).

		If the application only uses CMSIS libraries for interrupt
		configuration then the correct setting can be achieved on all Cortex-M
		devices by calling NVIC_SetPriorityGrouping( 0 ); before starting the
		scheduler.  Note however that some vendor specific peripheral libraries
		assume a non-zero priority group setting, in which cases using a value
		of zero will result in unpredicable behaviour. */
		configASSERT( ( portAIRCR_REG & portPRIORITY_GROUP_MASK ) <= ulMaxPRIGROUPValue );
	}

#endif /* configASSERT_DEFINED */

获取当前执行的中断级别

判断当前中断是否是用户中断

获取当前中断级别

剩下的基本都是对于中断的断言。

总结

FreeRTOS任务相关的代码大约占总代码的一半左右,这些代码都在为一件事情而努力,即找到优先级最高的就绪任务,并使之获得CPU运行权。任务切换是这一过程的直接实施者,为了更快的找到优先级最高的就绪任务,任务切换的代码通常都是精心设计的,甚至会用到汇编指令或者与硬件相关的特性,比如Cortex-M3的CLZ指令。因此任务切换的大部分代码是由硬件移植层提供的,不同的平台,实现发方法也可能不同。

更详细的介绍和说明参考下面的博文。

Quote

port.c

http://blog.csdn.net/liyuanbhu/article/details/7915778

http://blog.csdn.net/zhzht19861011/article/details/51418383

http://cstriker1407.info/blog/freertos-cortexm3-port/